The vast majority of water is saline or brackish, not suitable for direct human use or for agriculture
As the world’s population grows and sources for natural drinking water shrink, the need to desalinate seawater becomes crucial. Modern technology has improved desalination processes and made them cost effective, mainly by thermal water desalination and reverse osmosis.
The most intuitive desalination technique is thermal evaporation and condensation. Thermal desalination has been used for thousands of years as Greek sailors used to boil and evaporate sea water and condensate them to distilled water. This method resembles the water cycle in nature, but requires a lot of thermal energy.
Today’s sophisticated methods still generally use the concepts of distillation or filtration. This method has significantly improved by engineers in the 20th century. The commonly used industrial version of thermal desalination includes technologies like Multi Stage Flushing (MSF), Mechanical Vapor Compression (MVC) and Multi-Effect Distillation (MED). These technologies use thermal energy which is supplied either by electric driven compressors, steam boilers or waste heat recovery. The thermal energy evaporates saline water and condensates the vapors to distilled water.
These methods have been the most common industrial desalination technologies in the 70’s and 80’s, and are still being applied in places where excess thermal energy is available or power cost is low, however, in most cases the Capital & Operation cost (CAPEX & OPEX) are quite high.
Since the early 90’s a new desalination method has emerged and quickly took the centerstage in the market – membrane separation by Reverse Osmosis (RO). In this method, pressure is applied across a special semi-permeable membrane that separates salts from water. RO technology consumes about 40% of the thermal desalination process. Energy efficiency of RO has been further reduced in the last few decades with the development of Energy Recovery Devices (ERD) which recycles excess pressure from the RO reject back to the feed. The ERD saves a lot of the power required for driving the process. As a result, modern RO processes can produce clean water using about 30% of the thermal process energy, making it the preferred and most common practice in the global desalination industry.
RO membranes are sensitive to feed contaminants – suspended mineral and biological matter, therefore advanced pretreatment using either Multimedia filters (MMF), Microfiltration (MF) or Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes have been developed and are widely applied in desalination plants.
All desalination processes remove most of the salt and all the beneficial minerals from the water. In order to supply potable water, the permeate water must be remineralized.
The RO process can be applied in a variety of scales – as small as Point of Use scale (households), packaged containerized industrial systems, and mega-scale municipal plants.
Every human activity, both domestic and industrial, involves the use of water and produces waste streams. Such wastewater is generally loaded with various materials that, if untreated, can cause pollution, environmental damage and health risks.
The pollutants can be divided into organic compounds, inorganic materials and nutrients.
The treatment of domestic wastewater is done by several stages:
In the past few decades, some advanced treatment processes have emerged that are mostly a variation of the above activated sludge process. These include membrane bioreactors (MBR), Moving bed bioreactors (MBBR) and aerated biofilm reactors (MABR). They all gradually take their place in production of high quality effluent for reuse and safe discharge.
In the last decade, the effluent is further treated to drinking water quality, by using RO membranes that desalinate the water and UV that purify them.
Water is the most important and most available resource on our planet.
As Leonardo da Vinchi once said: “water is the driving force of all nature”.
Until recent years, the common view suggested that water is a simple H2O molecule which moves freely and randomly, in 3 phases: Liquid, Gas and Solid.
Nowadays, some voices have shaken this assumption, suggesting that water has a large number of anomalies and unexplained behaviors. There are new findings which suggest that water may appear in different molecular structured arrangements, and have a ‘fourth phase’. Water has unexplored properties and potential.
The story begins with an inventor, the Austrian forester and philosopher named Viktor Schauberger (1885-1958) who frequently studied water, but without modern scientific tools. He was born into a veteran family of foresters in the region of Bohemia forest. In the many hours he spent in the wild forest he observed the water springs, channels and rivers, and developed an interesting hydraulic theory. His theory suggests that the water that springs from the tops of the mountains, in the cool mountain air, is the most energetic and is the healthiest for humans.
Schauberger added another claim to his theory: for this water to be able to maintain their natural hoarded energy, until they reach us, they must always move in a circular motion, more specifically – in vortex formation. According to Schauberger, the river curves help the water to maintain its natural vortex form. Water running through straight pipes loses its vitality.
In recent years, a group of researchers from Stockholm University in Sweden used X-ray to suggest that water can appear in two different states that are different in their density. One is more spacious – “low density”, where the water moves relatively freely in space, and the other is “high density” – the water molecules are connected in chains which restricts them from moving. To explain this phenomenon, the researchers claimed that water is not a complex liquid, but two different types of simple liquids that are in relations between themselves.
In accordance with these claims, Professor Gerald Pollack from The University of Washington in Seattle, USA, talked about much greater arrays of constructed and viscose water. In the research he conducted in his lab in the late 90’s, he observed how near hydrophilic surfaces, a wide layer of structured water molecules grows slowly in connection with each other, and it appears that in that process they also push away any suspended and dissolved materials.
Prof. Pollack gave that clean and clear layer of water the nickname “Exclusion Zone”, or in short – EZ water. Pollack explained that in the area of EZ water, the water molecules are arranged in an organized chain of hexagons that stick together, layer by layer. When the water molecules are arranged in that dense net, there is no room for dissolved molecules or suspended solids, and they’re ‘pushed’ aside.
Prof. Pollack also discovered another surprising feature of the layer he called EZ – it has a tendency to have a negative electric charge. The water layer next to the EZ layer is charged with positive electric charge.The energy source for this process is electromagnetic waves (IR) that reach the water. In simple terms – the water layered called EZ can be used as an internal battery within organism cells. When the lab of Prof. Pollack connected the two layers with electrodes and a wire, it turned out the water was indeed a battery: the negative charges from the EZ water moved towards the normal water with positive charge, and electric charge was created.
According to Prof. Pollack’s findings, it appears that water may have a ‘fourth phase’ beyond solid, liquid and gas. This fourth phase is organized and electrically charged.
These discoveries may be used for water desalination and possibly even for energy generation.
In the beginning of the 1980’s, Jacques Benveniste (1935-2004) was a well-known immunologist in France. He was the head of INSERM’s Unit 200, the national research facilities in France, where he conducted experiments in the field of immunology and allergies.
In 1982, a doctor in his laboratory who was also a homeopath, asked to dilute a few solutions containing allergens (material that might create an allergic reaction), in a similar manner to the way one makes a homeopath medicine. In those dilution processes, the solution is diluted over and over until there is no longer a trace of the original substance, only water. Homeopaths do that because they believe even though the substance is no longer present, the water retains more and more of that substance’s energy. They believe that water which contains this energy can be used as a medicine.
The results of this experiment surprised Benveniste. Even though the water was diluted over and over again, the solution, who once contained allergens, still provoked allergic reactions in blood cells when exposed to the diluted solution. It was as if the water remembered the allergan that was once in them. Benveniste was fascinated by this phenomenon and started to research it.
It took a few years until enough data was collected, which demonstrated the phenomenon repeatedly. Benveniste published his findings in Nature, a prestigious journal, but later on the Nature team declared that they found defects in the work process of Prof. Benveniste, and his career suffered a big blow. From that point on, he had to fund his own research, and the scientific community did not spare him from insults.
Despite the heavy price, Prof. Benveniste continued his research and published some further interesting discoveries. In 1997, he discovered a mechanism that stands behind the mysterious “memory” of water. He understood that what the water “remembers” is not entirely linked to the chemistry of the molecules which were once in their solution, but has more to do with the frequency the molecules transmitted in the water. He discovered that some materials, when dissolved in water, transmit electromagnetic frequencies unique to them, and as a result from the repeated dilution and shaking, those frequencies are “transferred” to the water in a way that allows them to emit similar frequencies. That means that even though the water no longer contains the allergens that were dissolved in them before the dilution, they still emitted the frequencies of the original material. Those frequencies were, in fact, what evoked the allergic reactions in the blood cells used for the experiment.
These findings resonates with the known statement by Nicola Tesla:
‘If you want to understand the secrets of the universe, think in terms of energy, frequency and vibration”.
In 2005, Prof. Luc Montagnier, a french virologist who discovered in 1983 the AIDS virus and was awarded a nobel prize for his discovery, teamed up with Dr. Jamal Aissa, one of the leading researchers in the late Benveniste’s lab, who took a major part in Benveniste’s controversial research. They soon reconstructed the experiments held in the days of Prof. Benveniste, and made progress in those experiments. The results were certainly surprising and fascinating.
When they filtered solutions containing virus mycoplasma, until there was no trace of the virus the water, and then continued to dilute the solutions several times, those diluted and filtered solutions still emitted an electromagnetic frequency typical to those virus. The surprising part of it was that two weeks after the dilution process stopped, some sections of the DNA of the original virus appeared in the solution.
These findings enhanced Prof. Montagnier’s curiosity even further, who began to wonder how those sections of DNA were created, and does it have to do with the frequencies the water was emitting?
At the first stage of the research he filled a test tube containing HIV DNA sequence and diluted it 6 times, and the diluted solution emitted the frequencies matching the HIV virus.
In the second stage of the experiment, another test tube was placed next to the diluted test tube, for 18 hours. The new test tube contained pure water only. It turned out that influenced by a weak electromagnetic field that was activated on both test tubes, the pure water in the second test tube were “infected” by the frequency – they started vibrating with the same frequency that matches the AIDS virus.
In 2014, Prof. Montagnier took a step further and showed the process of “DNA teleportation” in its completion. By doing that, he was actually re-enacting Dr. Benveniste’s experiment from 1997.
At this experiment, instead of putting both test tubes next to each other, so that the one with the pure water would get “infected” by the diluted solution, he used a computer file with a recording of the electromagnetic emission frequency.
He then sent that file using email to a number of labs in Germany and Italy. In each of the far away laboratories was a test tube filled with pure water that was “listening” to the recorded electromagnetic frequency in the file.
By that, similarly to the experiment Dr. Benveniste held in 1997, Prof. Montagnier also succeeded in transmitting the diluted solution frequency to another lab, and by doing so, he created copies of the same DNA sequences.
Along the lines of these pioneering discoveries comes the work of the Japanese researcher Masaru Emoto (1943-2014), famous for a series of unconventional experiments he held for over 20 years. In a series of books, including the bestseller “Messages from the Water” (1999), he shows very persuasive arguments that water absorbs our emotions and is affected by them.
Emoto exposed pure water to different messages, emotions and frequencies. In one experiment water was placed in enclosed bottles with written messages directed inwards. The messages were words such as “honesty”, “love and gratitude” or negative messages such as “I can’t do this” or “I hate you”.
He froze the water and when the drops started to freeze, he photographed the water crystals with a microscope. He discovered that each message created its own kind of crystal structure. Water that was near messages such as “honesty” or “love and gratitude”, no matter what language they were written in, created beautiful, organized and harmonic crystals. In opposition to these, water with negative messages such as “I hate you” created broken and partial crystals.
Emoto found out that music that was played to water also had an effect over the structure of the crystal. While water exposed to classical music created different kinds of symmetric and organized crystals, heavy rock music caused the water to crystallize completely randomly.
The source of the water also has a role. Each lake has different ice crystals, unique to them, and it turns out that spring water produces much more organized crystals than dam waters or contaminated river water. When Emoto took relatively dirty water from the Tokyo pipe system, they crystallized randomly. But after 500 people sent love towards the water, it was crystalizing completly differently – to symmetric and harmonic structures.
Out of all these experiments, Emoto came to the conclusion that water has memory and that emotional energy can affect the physical structure of water. Dr. Emoto claimed that water reflects our physical world, like an image of a mirror reflecting from a clear lake. At the same time they also reflect the mind of those around them by reacting to the emotional frequencies surrounding them.
An entirely closed water cycle that reuses every single drop
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